Q. How to stop hair loss and improve it’s thickness, strength and
A. Check your haemoglobin and thyroid level. Take supplements of iron and vitamin- A . Drink plenty of water. Keep the scalp clean and wash your hair at least once a week with a shampoo containing ‘ketoconozole’. Eat a diet rich in protein and iron.
Q. How to care for a sensitive skin allergic to soaps, makeup, creams etc.?
A. Avoid too much exposure to sun-light. Use only soap-free face washers and use calamine lotion during the day. In case some allergic spots appear on the skin then apply erythromycin cream locally and take anti-allergic tablet. Use only hypoallergenic products.
Q. How to get rid of black heads and open pores on face?
A. Consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and water. If skin is oily use a drying soap to keep your skin clean of oils. Use a clay-pack at least twice a week and take large doses of vitamin-A and zinc tablets after consulting your doctor. Also make sure that you are not constipated. Keep your scalp clean devoid of any dandruff. Locally apply creams containing benzoyl peroxide or erythromycin on existing spots.
Q. How to remove dark spots on legs and hands which appear aft6er waxing?
A. Cause of dark spots is generally due to in growth of hair . Post waxing from day two onwards use a pumice stone lightly to prevent the formation of these ingrowths . Alternate waxing with shaving . Already existing scars may be lightened by the regular use of a cream containing trentinoin (0.05) on every alternate day. This works by peeling of the scarred areas layer by layer.
Q. How to prevent and get rid of dark circles around the eyes?
A. Take an iron supplement daily (fefol capsules) .Eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables. Drink plenty of water. Get at least eight hours of sleep at night. Bring your stress levels low . Use a sunscreen and moisturiser during the day and a skin lightening gel at bed times especially around the eyes.
Q. What to do with unwanted facial hair?
A. Threading is an option which can be exercised by both men and women.
In case of women check your hormonal balance . Once a month bleaching can be tried.
Permanent method of hair removal can be electrolysis or through hair removing laser which may require 3 to 5 sittings over a period of at least 6 months.
Q. What to do with hyperpigmentation in peri and post menopausal women?
A. This is a common problem in women in early forties because of internal hormonal changes which get accentuated by the tropical sun.These patches can be lightened by doing the following:-
Avoid sunlight as much as possible .
Use a good sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or above .
At bed time Use a topical cream containing 2 to 4 % hydroquinone only on the affected area. Do it for three months regularly
Consult your doctor for any hormone therapy.
Q. What is alopecia areata (patchy hair loss) ?
A. This is a patchy hair loss .Can effect any age group. Cause is not known. Probable reasons could be head injury, hormonal changes, severe emotional strain or shock. Also it could be hereditary . This ailment is temporary and self limiting and generally the hair grows back within a few weeks. Consult your doctor for some local application of cortisone cream or some local tincture. Cortisone injections into the bald patches may hasten the hair growth and prevent further loss.
Q. How to get rid of ugly scars (keloids)?
A. This is an overgrowth of scar tissue due to abnormal response of the skin during wound healing. Asians and dark skins are more prone to it. They are highly resistant to treatment .Consult your doctor regarding injections of cortisone like substances into the keloid or the use of carbon divided laser.
Q. How to get rid of frown lines on the forehead?
A. Regular facial massage against the lines and consult your doctor regarding small doses of ‘botou’ injections which are taken in muscles. It freezes them and thereafter these muscles do not form when they contract. This is a five minutes procedure repeated every six months.
Q. What is the cause of grey hair?
A. Most of the color in your hair comes from a pigment called melanin, which is manufactured in the body by cells known as melanocytes. When hairs turn white, it is because the melanocytes are no longer producing melanin. The "graying" is usually a years-long process that occurs one hair at a time. It is normal for the body to reduce melanin production as we age. Typically, this starts in the late 30s or 40s, but having some white hairs in your 20s is not at all unusual. There is still a lot we do not understand about what triggers the melanocytes to slow down on the job.We do know that heredity seems to be the most common determining factor for when this will start to happen. Take a look around in your family. If you have close relatives who started going gray in their 20s or early 30s, chances are good that your graying has been pre-ordained by your genes.
Q. What is a bindi rash?
A. The skin can get allergic to the glue used on bindi. Best is to use a liquid bindi which does not have glue and apply a mild anti-biotic and anti-histaminic cream locally over the itching area. Take an anti-allergic tablet for a day or two.
Q. My doctor has told me I should have an angioplasty. How do I choose who should do it and where it should be done?
A. As with other medical procedures, practice makes perfect, and the volume of procedures done, both by the physician and the hospital where the procedure is performed, is important. According to joint guidelines set by the Health Ministry and All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the hospital itself should be the site of at least 200 angioplasties each year, so that the entire angioplasty team becomes expert in doing angioplasty.
Q. My doctor recommends I have an angioplasty, but also warns me that they sometimes need to be redone over the next several months. So wouldn't it make more sense to have coronary bypass surgery instead?
A. Because angioplasty restores blood flow to the heart without the need for major surgery, most doctors are inclined to try it at least once, unless there are clear indications it is unsuitable. Even if a repeat angioplasty is needed to achieve lasting results, this is still less stressful on the body than coronary bypass surgery.
Q. I had angioplasty, but my doctor still recommends that I lower my cholesterol and stop smoking. Since I feel fine, why do I need to do this?
A. An angioplasty treats the result of coronary artery disease, but doesn't cure the underlying cause. Coronary artery disease is a progressive disease, so you need to attack the factors that led to it - by lowering blood cholesterol levels, exercising, and quitting smoking, for example. This will reduce the probability that you'll need another angioplasty, or possibly even coronary bypass surgery, in the future.
Q. My doctor says I have coronary artery disease that requires surgical treatment. I would like to have an angioplasty, but my doctor says it won't work for me. Why not?
A. Not all plaques respond to the angioplasty technique; some are too long or too hardened, or out of reach of the catheter. Or the artery may have so many blockages that coronary bypass surgery would be better. Also, the condition of the heart may play a role. In some cases, if the heart is weak, angioplasty is not the right choice.
Q. I had an angioplasty performed and I'm concerned about the vessel
reclosing. How do I know whether or not this is happening?
A. Usually, the return of chest pain (angina) is the chief symptom of
reclosure, or restenosis. About 60% to 70% of patients who develop restenosis will experience chest pain. Contact your doctor if you begin suffering chest pain. However, not everyone who develops restenosis experiences chest pain, which is why you should contact your doctor if you experience unusual fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pressure, or any of the other symptoms you may have had before your angioplasty. About 10% to 20% of patients who develop restenosis experience no symptoms at all.
Q. I am a diabetic. Should I have an angioplasty?
A. Major studies have found that the death, complication, and restenosis rates for diabetics who have angioplasty is significantly higher than for those who have coronary bypass surgery. This doesn't necessarily rule angioplasty out. It may still be the best procedure for you. Your doctor will take your diabetes into consideration, along with other factors, to determine the best treatment.
Which method of surgery is best for me?
A. Ask your doctor. He or she has to consider many factors—including your overall health, anatomy, and other conditions—in making the decision. If you have any concerns about particular methods, you should talk them out with your physician so that you will feel comfortable with your surgery.
Q. How long will my bypass graft last?
A. For most people with bypass surgery, the graft remains open, aiding in blood flow for 10 to 15 years. It is important to remember, however, that CABG surgery will help re-establish blood flow in the heart, but it does not prevent coronary artery disease from recurring. The only things that may prevent coronary artery disease are healthy lifestyle choices and possibly certain medications.
Q. What is angiography?
A. Angiography is a test which allows doctors/radiologists to view the blood vessels in various parts of the body to look for abnormalities.
Q. How long do I have to stay at the hospital?
A. The duration of your stay depends on the procedure you are having done. If you look under the specific test, you will get a better idea of the length of the procedure.
Q. Does the test take long?
A. Each test varies in length of time. Refer to specific test for length of stay.
Q. Can I go home alone?
A. At the time of your appointment, you will be informed whether you will need an escort.
Q. Can I drive myself?
A. If you have not had any pain medication or an arterial (angiogram) puncture then you can drive yourself.
Q. Do I have to stop my medications on the day of the test?
A. When your appointment is booked, you will be informed which medication needs to be stopped.
Q. What is aortic valve stenosis?
A. Aortic valve stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the valve, which prevents it from opening properly. Once stenosis develops, the heart must work harder to pump blood through a narrowed opening, causing pressure to build up in the left ventricle. To compensate for this build up, the left ventricle enlarges so the chamber can pump harder. Although the heart can compensate for aortic valve stenosis for a long time, eventually the valve becomes too narrow and the heart can no longer keep up. Without treatment, heart failure may develop.
Q. What causes aortic valve stenosis?
A. Several conditions can cause aortic valve stenosis. As a consequence of aging, the valve may become hard and thick from calcium build up; most cases of calcium build up occur in people older than 65. In younger people, the most frequent cause is a birth defect that results in a bicuspid valve, which has two leaflets instead of three. Also, infection from rheumatic fever or endocarditis can damage the valve. Taking the weight-loss medication
fen-phen has been linked to heart valve disease in some people.
What are the symptoms of aortic valve
A. Aortic valve stenosis generally progresses slowly. For many years, even decades, you will not feel any symptoms from the heart's effort to compensate for aortic valve
stenosis. But at some point, the valve will become so narrow (usually at least one-quarter of its normal size) that symptoms develop. Some people may notice symptoms only after heart failure develops. As aortic valve stenosis worsens, the damaged valve, reduced blood flow, and pressure build up inside the heart can cause symptoms such as:
Chest pain (angina), fainting, and/or shortness of breath, often caused by exertion.
Palpitations (an uncomfortable awareness of the heart beating rapidly or irregularly).
How is aortic valve stenosis diagnosed?
A. Sometimes doctors make an initial diagnosis of stenosis after hearing a characteristic heart murmur during a physical exam. Several tests may be done to diagnose aortic valve
stenosis, especially echocardiography.
Q. How is aortic valve stenosis treated?
A. Surgery to replace the aortic valve is usually done promptly once you begin having symptoms of severe
stenosis—chest pain, fainting, or shortness of breath. If you don't have symptoms, your doctor will probably monitor your heart and delay treatment until you begin to notice signs of the condition. Doctors usually wait to replace the valve until symptoms develop because of the risks of surgery. If you don't have symptoms, the risks of surgery are greater than the risk of sudden death from aortic valve
If you do have symptoms, your doctor may prescribe medications, but they are not effective in curing or improving aortic valve
stenosis. With valve replacement, most people can reach a normal life expectancy.
Unless you have valve replacement surgery, the long-term outlook is poor once symptoms develop. People with untreated aortic valve stenosis who develop symptoms of heart failure usually have a life expectancy of 3 years or
Complications that may develop in people who have aortic valve stenosis include:
Sudden death may occur in 15% to 20% of people who have symptoms of aortic valve
stenosis; it is rare in people without symptoms. Sudden death occurs in about one-third of people who have symptoms and are over 80 years old